|1) All matter is made of atoms.
Atoms retain identity during chemical reactions
||1.A. All matter is made of atoms. There a limited
number of types of atoms. These are elements.
||EK 1.A.1 Molecules are composed of specific combinations of
atoms, with specific proportions.
||LO1.1 Students can justify the observation that the ratio of
the masses for pure samples is constant.
|EK 1.A.2 Chemical analysis provides a method for
determining the relative number of atoms in a substance which can be used
to identify a substance or its purity.
||LO 1.2 Student is able to select and apply mathematical
routines to mass data to identify or infer the composition or purity of
substances and mixtures
|LO 1.3 Use math to justify claims about a substances
composition and/or purity
|EK 1.A.3 The mole is the fundamental unit for measuring
quantities of atoms or molecules and allows chemistry to convert to mass
||LO 1.4 Able to connect the number of particles, moles, mass,
and volume of a substance to one another qualitatively and quantitatively
|1.B. Atoms of each element are unique.
The particular arrangement arises from the interaction between the nucleus
||EK 1.B.1 Atom is made of electrons and protons
and neutrons. Coulomb's Law help predict interactions between electrons
||LO 1.5 Able to explain distribution of electrons from data.
|LO 1.6 Analyze and predict electron energies.
|EK 1.B.2 Electronic structure of atom is
described by electron configurations which are quantized. Energies of
shells are consistent with Coulomb's Law.
||LO 1.7 Describe the electronic structure of the atom.
Reconcile data from any of a variety of sources to the interpretation
using Coulomb's Law
|LO 1.8 Explain the distribution of electrons using Coulomb's
Law to analyze measured energies.
|1.C. Elements when arranged by
increasing atomic number display a profound periodicity.
||EK 1.C.1 Physical properties of elements are
periodic because the electronic structure of atoms is periodic
||LO 1.9 Predict and/or justify periodic trends of elements
based on position on the periodic table and/or shell model of atom.
|LO 1.10 Justify arrangement of periodic table and predict
|LO 1.11 Predict properties and behavior of binary compounds
based on the similarity of their components to given chemicals.
|EK 1.C.2 Currently accepted best model for atoms is the
||LO 1.12 Using data, students can determine if the classical
shell model needs to be refined using Quantum Mechanics. (i.e. recognize
weakness in classical shell model)
|1.D. Atoms are so small as to be
difficult to study individually. Models are constructed to explain
collections of atoms.
||EK 1.D.1 Quantum mechanical model of atom is like any other
scientific model. It may be subject to revision and for a given question
may not yield more insight than simpler model. It is a theoretical
||LO 1.13 Given information about a particular model students
can determine if a model is consistent with the observations or requires
|EK 1.D.2 All atoms of a element are not identical in the
strictest sense. Mass spectroscopy has proven existence of isotopes.
||LO 1.14 Given mass spectroscopic data students can identify
element and the mass of a particular isotope.
|EK 1.D.3 The interaction between light (of all
frequencies) and matter provides great understanding of the structure of
||LO 1.15 Justify choice of particular type of spectroscopy
based on vibrational frequencies and/or energies to be studied.
|LO 1.16 Design and interpret spectroscopic investigation to
yield concentration of light absorbing species in solution.
|1.E. Atoms are conserved in in physical and
||EK 1.E.1 Physical and chemical processes may be depicted
symbolically. Depiction must conserve matter.
||LO 1.17 Use symbolic depictions to demonstrate the
conservation of matter.
|EK 1.E.2 Conservation of matter requires that
same number of same type of atoms appear before and after a chemical
process. This allows for quantitative stoichiometry in all its various
types from balancing equations to gravimetric analysis.
||LO 1.18 Apply conservation of matter to a variety of
rearrangements of atoms (i.e. balance chemical reactions).
|LO 1.19 Use gravimetric analysis in lab to determine the
concentration of an analyte in solution.
|LO 1.20 Design, perform and interpret and titration
experiment that will yield concentration of an unknown.
|2) Chemical and physical properties of
substances reflect the arrangement of atoms, molecules and the forces
||LO 2.1 Predict properties of substance based on their
chemical formulas based on particle views
|LO 2.2 Explain the strengths of acids or based due to
molecular formula and shape, including solution equilibrium
|2.A. Matter can be described by its physical
properties which arise from the spacing between particles (atoms or
molecules) and the forces of attraction among them.
||EK 2.A.1 Properties of solids and liquids can be explained
by difference in structures, both at molecular level and supramolecular
||LO2.3 Know the difference in the particle models of solids,
|EK 2.A.2 Gases can be modeled mathematically.
Gasses do not have a definite volume or shape, because attractive forces
between molecules are minimal and particles move independently (mostly).
||LO 2.4 Use Kinetic Molecular Theory and intermolecular
forces to determine behavoir of ideal and non-ideal gases
|LO 2.5 Relate macroscopic changes in gases to particle level
|LO 2.6 Use mathematics to solve gas law problems, or to
estimate them solving for a macroscopic quantity.
|EK 2.A.3 Solutions are homogeneous mixtures
whose properties are dependent on the concentration of solute and the
intermolecular interactions between solute and solvent
||LO 2.7 Solutes can be separated by chromatography due to
|LO 2.8 Draw and/or interpret diagrams that demonstrate
molecular interactions accurately
|LO 2.9 Draw and/or interpret diagrams illustrating molarity
on the molecular scale.
|LO 2.10 Design interpret separation experiment in terms of
|2.B. Forces of attraction
between molecules are important in determining many of the macroscopic
properties of a substance.
||EK 2.B.1 London forces are present in all molecules. London
forces may be the strongest forces in large molecules.
||LO 2.11 Explain / predict trends in samples lacking
intermolecular force other than London Forces.
|EK 2.B.2 Dipole forces arise from the attraction
between oppositely charged ends of a polar molecule. Hydrogen bonding is a
particularly strong subset of this phenomenon between H and one of : N, O,
||LO 2.12 Identify deviations between real gas behavior and
ideal gas behavior as a manifestation ofinter- molecular forces
|LO 2.13 Describe structural features of polar molecules and
the forces arising between molecules
|LO 2.14 Qualitatively apply Coulomb's Law to explain the
relative solubility of solutes in solvents.
|EK 2.B.3 Intermolecular forces have a key role
in determining the properties of of substances.
||LO 2.15 Explain solubility of ionic solids and molecules in
solvents using both Inter Molecular force and Entropy
|LO 2.16 Explain physical properties (phase, vapor pressure,
viscosity etc.) of substances based on molecular interactions (IMF's)
|2.C. The strong
electrostatic forces holding atoms together in a unit are chemical bonds.
||LO 2.17 Predict the type of bonding present in a binary
compound based on the positions of the components on the periodic table
and/or their respective electronegativities.
|EK 2.C.1 In covalent bonding electrons are shared. The
distribution of the electrons between two chemicals is predicted by
electronegativity. This in turn determines the polarity of the bond.
||LO 2.18 Rank and explain bond bond polarity on the basis of
relative positions on the periodic table.
|EK 2.C.2 Ionic bonding results from the net attraction
between oppositely charged ions in a 3-D crystalline lattice.
||LO 2.19 Make diagrams that show how molecular scale
interactions lead to macroscopically observable properties for ionic
|EK 2.C.3 Metallic bonding describes a 3-D
array of positively charged metal cores in a shared "sea" of
||LO 2.20 Show that properties of metals are
consistent with delocalized electron bonding and the shell model of the
|EK 2.C.4 The localized electron bonding
model describes and predicts many properties of substances using Lewis dot
diagrams and VSEPR
||LO 2.21 Use Lewis dot diagrams and VSEPR
to predict: geometry, hybridization and polarity.
|2.D. The type of bonding
can be deduced from the substance's properties in the solid state.
||LO 2.22 Design and/or evaluate a plan for
deducing the type of bonding present in a solid.
|EK 2.D.1 Ionic solids have
high melting points, are brittle and conduct electricity only when molten
||LO 2.23 Draw an ionic substance
illustrating the characteristics of the structure and the interactions
between the particles.
|LO 2.24 Explain or evaluate a diagram of
an ionic solid in terms of its structural characteristics and the
interactions between particles.
|EK 2.D. 2 Metallic solids are
good conductors of heat, and electricity, have wide range of melting
points, are opaque, shiny and malleable.
The are easily alloyed.
|LO 2.25 Compare the properties of an alloy
to its constituents to determine if an alloy has formed and the type of
alloying. Explain the difference in properties at the particle level
|LO 2.26 Use the electron sea model for
metallic bonding to explain the properties of metals.
|LO 2.27 Make atomic scale drawings of
metals illustrating their essential properties and atomic interactions
|LO 2.28 Explain or evaluate and drawing
and its ability to explain properties and interactions in a metal or
|EK 2.D.3 Covalent network
solids have extremely high melting points, are hard, act as thermal
insulators, but some conduct electricity
||LO 2.29 Draw a covalent network showing
its structure and interactions.
|LO 2.30 Explain or evaluate a drawing or
diagram in terms of its ability illustrate a network solid's structure and
|EK 2.D.4 Molecular solids with
low molecular weights have low melting points, and do not conduct
electricity in solid, liquid, or solution.
||LO 2.31 Draw a molecular covalent
substance illustrating its structure and particle interactions.
|LO 2.32 Evaluate a drawing's accuracy in
portraying a molecular covalent substances structure and particle
|3) Changes in
matter involve the rearrangement and/or reorganization of atoms and/or the
transfer of electrons
||3.A. Chemical changes are represented by balanced
||LO 3.1 Translate among macroscopic observations, chemical
equations, and microscopic particle views of chemical changes.
|EK 3.A.1: A chemical reaction
may be represented as a molecular, ionic, or net ionic equation.
||LO 3.2 Translate a chemical change into a balanced chemical
equation and classify the equation depending on the context
Stoichiometry allows chemists to accurately predict what amount of
reactants to use in a chemical reaction to produce a desired amount of
product in the real-world.
||LO 3.3 Use stoichiometric calculations to predict outcome of
chemical reactions. Compare actual results to calculations and explain any
|LO 3.4 Identify limiting reagents in chemical reactions
which have not gone to completion.
Chemical reactions can be classified by what the reactants are, what the
products are, and how they change from one to another. Several common
types are: synthesis, decomposition, displacement, acid-base and redox
Synthesis reactions are those reactions in which 2 reactants combine to
form 1 new product. Decomposition reactions are the reverse process in
which 1 reactant will break into several smaller compounds.
||LO 3.5 Design a synthesis or decomposition reaction in which
the Law of Conservation of Mass and the Law of Multiple Proportions can be
|LO 3.6 Use data from a synthesis or decomposition reaction
to confirm multiple proportions and conservation of mass.
|EK 3.B.2 In a neutralization
reaction a proton is transferred from the acid to the base.
||LO 3.7 Identify compounds as Bronsted-Lowry acids or bases
using proton exchange reactions to justify classification.
|EK 3.B.3 In redox
reactions there is a net transfer of electrons. The species gaining
electrons is reduced, the species losing electrons is oxidized.
||LO 3.8 Identify Redox reactions and justify based on
|LO 3.9 Design and/or interpret results from a redox
Chemical and physical changes may be observed several different ways and
typically involve an energy change in the system.
||EK 3.C.1 Production of light,
temperature change, color change, formation of a precipitate, or gas are
all indications that a chemical reaction may have taken place.
||LO 3.10 Classify a process as either a physical change,
chemical change or ambiguous based on the changes of particle, their
attractions and interactions.
|EK 3.C.2 A reaction may be
endothermic, or exothermic depending on whether the system liberates
energy or stores energy.
||LO 3.11 Interpret macroscopic energy changes to symbols
and/or energy change diagrams.
Electrochemistry shows the interconversion of electrical potential and
chemical potential energy in galvanic and electrolytic cells.
||LO 3.12 Make qualitative or quantitative prediction of
electrolytic reactions using half-cell potentials or Faraday's laws.
|LO 3.13 Analyze an electrolytic cell and accurately identify
the products of the redox reaction.
|4) Rates of chemical reactions are determined by the
details of the molecular collisions.
||4.A. Reaction rates that depend on temperature and
other environmental factors are determined by measuring changes in
concentration over time.
||EK 4.A.1 Rate of reaction is
influenced by concentration of reactants, phase of the reactants and/or
products, and enviromental factors such as temperature, and solvent.
||LO 4.1 Design or interpret results from an experiment to
regarding the factors that can speed a chemical reaction up.
|EK 4.A.2 The rate law shows
how reaction rate depends on reaction concentration
||LO 4.2 Analyze concentration vs. time data to determine if
reaction is 0, 1, 2 order.
|EK 4.A.3 The magnitude and
temperature dependence of the reaction rate is contained quantitatively in
the rate constant.
||LO 4.3 Relate reaction half-life to reaction order.
Specifically that 1st order reaction half-lives are directly related to
|4.B. Elementary reactions are mediated by collisions
between molecules. Only collisions with sufficient energy and proper
orientation make new products.
||EK 4.B.1 Reactions can be
unimolecular or involve collisions between 2 or more molecules.
||LO 4.4 Relate the molecular collision frequency and success
rate to the reaction order and rate constant for elementary reactions.
|EK 4.B.2 Not all collisions
are successful. A collision leading to a reaction must posses sufficient
energy and correct orientation to allow for the formation of new chemical
||LO 4.5 Explain the difference
between collisions leading to reactions and those that fail in terms of
energy and molecular orientation.
|EK 4.B.3 A successful
collision can be viewed as following a reaction path with an associated
||LO 4.6 Use energy profiles of
specific reactions to make qualitative predictions of relative temperature
dependence of the reaction.
reactions proceed through a series of elementary reactions.
||EK 4.C.1 The reaction
mechanism of a multi-step reaction consists of a series of elementary
steps that will sum to the overall reaction.
||LO 4.7 Evaluate
reaction alternative reaction mechanisms to determine which are consistent
with reaction rate and data regarding reaction intermediates.
|EK 4.C.2 In many reactions
the rate is set by the slowest elementary reaction.
|EK 4.C.3 Reaction
intermediates (formed by one elementary step, but consumed by another)
play an important role in multi-step reactions.
|4.D. Reaction rates may be increased by the presence
of a catalyst.
||EK 4.D.1 Catalysts function
by lowering the activation energy of an elementary step and by providing a
new and faster reaction mechanism.
||LO 4.8 Use a variety of
representations (particle depictions, energy profiles, balanced chemical
equations) to determine the presence or absence of a catalyst.
|EK 4.D.2 Important types of
catalysts include: acid-base; surface; and enzymatic.
||LO 4.9 Explain changes in
reaction rates due to the use of acid-base catalysts, surface catalysts,
or enzyme catalysts including selecting appropriate mechanisms with or
without catalyst present.
|5) The Laws of Thermodynamics explain the essential
role of energy and explain and predict the direction of changes in matter.
||LO 5.1 Use drawings and representations to illustrate the
relationships between distance between atoms and energy. Specific topics
may include bond order and polarity of bond.
|5.A. Two systems with different temperatures in
thermal contact will exchange energy. The quantity of energy exchanged is
||EK 5.A.1 Temperature is a
measure of the average kinetic energy of atoms and molecules.
||LO 5.2 Relate temperature to motion of particles using
drawings and/or energy distribution plots.
|EK 5.A.2 Kinetic energy
transfer at the particulate level is heat. Spontaneous heat transfer
always from hot (high energy) to cold (low energy).
||LO 5.3 Explain and/or make predictions about transfer of
thermal energy between systems due to particle collisions.
|5.B. Energy is neither created nor destroyed. It
readily changes form.
||EK 5.B.1 Energy exchange
between two systems occurs as heat exchange or work.
||LO 5.4 Use Law of Conservation of Energy to determine the
magnitude, direction and type of energy flow between interacting systems.
|EK 5.B.2 When two systems are in contact with each other (otherwise
isolated) The total energy is fixed. The energy that leaves one system
will flow to the other. Energy transfer can occur as heat or work.
||LO 5.5 Use Law of Conservation of Energy to predict
magnitude and type of energy flow when two non-reacting systems are mixed.
|EK 5.B.3 Chemical systems go
through 3 main processes that their energy: heating/cooling; phase
transitions; and chemical reactions.
||LO 5.6 Use calculations and/or estimates to predict energy
changes due to heating/cooling a substance. Including energy relations
during phase changes, the role of heat capacity, the effect of PdV work.
|EK 5.B.4 Calorimetry is an
experimental technique that is used to determine the heat exchanged in a
||LO 5.7 Design or interpret
the results of an experiment in which constant pressure calorimetry is
used to determine change in enthalpy .
|5.C. Breaking bonds requires energy input. Making
bonds releases energy.
||EK 5.C.1 Potential energy is
associated with a particular geometric arrangement of molecules and ions
and the electrostatic interactions between them.
||LO 5.8 Make qualitative connections or quantitative
calculations about reaction enthalpies due breaking and formation of
|EK 5.C.2 The net energy
change during a reaction is the sum of energy required to break reactant
bonds and the energy released making product bonds.
|5.D. Electrostatic forces exist between molecules.
Breaking these intermolecular forces requires energy.
||EK 5.D.1 Potential energy is
associated with the interaction of molecules. As molecules draw closer to
each other they experience an attractive force.
||LO 5.9 Make claims or predictions regarding the magnitude of
forces within a collection of molecules based on the distribution of
electrons and types of forces between molecules.
|EK 5.D.2 At the particle
scale, chemical processes can be distinguished from physical processes
because intermolecular forces can be distinguished from chemical bonds.
||LO 5.10 Identify a process as a physical change based on
whether intermolecular, or intramolecular forces are involved in the
|EK 5.D.3 Noncovalent and
intermolecular play important roles in biological and polymer systems.
||LO 5.11 The student is able to identify non-covalent
interactions within and between large molecules, and/or connect the shape
and function of large molecules to these non-covalent forces.
|5.E. Chemical processes are driven by a decrease in
enthalpy or an increase in entropy or both.
||EK 5.E.1 Entropy is a measure
of the dispersal of matter and energy.
||LO 5.12 Predict the sign and magnitude of entropy changes
using a variety of methods/depictions.
|EK 5.E.2 Some
processes (chemical and physical) involve a decrease in enthalpy and an
increase in entropy of the components of the system. These processes are
always thermodynamically favored.
||LO 5.13 Predict
whether a given chemical or physical process is favorable by determining
the signs and magnitude of ΔH°, ΔS°, or ΔG° as needed
|EK 5.E.3 If chemical or physical change is not driven by
both entropy and enthalpy, then Gibbs Free Energy can be used to determine
||LO 5.14 Determine thermodynamic favorability by calculating
standard Gibbs Free Energy a variety of ways.
|EK 5.E.4 External sources of energy may be used
to drive change in cases where Gibbs Free Energy is positive.
||LO 5.15 Explain how the addition of outside energy can
change thermodynamically unfavorable process to favorable.
|LO 5.16 Use LeChatelier's principle to predict what changes
will drive formation of more product in coupled systems.
|LO 5.17 Make quantitative predictions on coupled systems
with a shared intermediate using equilibrium constant calculations.
|EK 5.E.5 A thermodynamically favored reaction may not occur
due to kinetic constraints.
||LO 5.18 Explain why thermodynamically favored reaction may
not produce significant amounts of product. Explain why and unfavorable
reaction may produce significant products. Includes both consideration of
initial products and kinetic factors.
|6) Any bond that can be made can be broken
Chemical equilibrium is a dynamic reversible state in which rates of
opposing processes are equal
||EK 6.A.1 In many classes of reaction it is
important to consider both the forward and reverse reactions.
||LO 6.1 Explain a reversible reaction or chemical process in
terms of the underlying chemical reactions and processes.
|EK 6.A.2 The current state of a chemical
system undergoing a reversible reaction can be characterized by the ratio
of products to reactants or Q the reaction quotient
||LO 6.2 Calculate changes is Q or K given the changes to the
|EK 6.A.3 When a system is at
equilibrium, concentration, partial pressure, temperature do not change
over time. The forward rate of reaction is exactly equal to the reverse
rate of reaction and Q = K
||LO 6.3 Use LeChatelier's principle to deduce how a change
will effect the kinetics of the forward and reverse processes of a system
|LO 6.4 Use initial conditions and K to calculate Q and
determine if a chemical system is at equilibrium, will continue to right,
or will reverse.
|LO 6.5 Calculate K from tables, lists, or charts of a system
|LO 6.6 Calculate K from initial concentrations or partial
pressures and a balanced chemical equation.
|EK 6.A.4 The magnitude of K determines
whether reactant or product concentrations predominate at equilibrium
||LO 6.7 Given a chemical reaction with a large K or a small K
determine which species will have high and low concentrations at
Systems at equilibrium are sensitive to external perturbation, with the
response leading to a change in the composition of the system
||EK 6.B.1 Systems at
equilibrium respond to stresses to reduce the stress
||LO 6.8 Use LeChatelier's principle to determine the shift in
equilibrium given various stresses on a system at equilibrium.
|LO 6.9 Use LeChatelier's principle to design a set of
conditions that will optimize a desired outcome.
|EK 6.B.2 If a system at equilibrium is
disturbed, new conditions cause Q to differ from K. The system responds by
bringing Q back into agreement with K
||LO 6.10 Use LeChatelier's principle to explain effects of
stress on Q and K.
equilibrium plays a major role in acid-base chemistry and solubility
||EK 6.C.1 Chemical equilibrium reasoning can be
used to descibe proton transfer reactions between acids, bases, and their
||LO 6.11 Use a representation that depicts which particles
are present at equilibrium when a base and acid interact.
|LO 6.12 Explain the differences between strong and weak
acids. Specifically address pH, percent ionization, concentration needed
to achieve a given pH, and amount needed to achieve equivalence point.
|LO 6.13 Interpret titration data for monoprotic or
polyprotic acids (either strong or weak acids, either strong or weak
bases) to determine concentration of the titrant and pKa or pKb as
|LO 6.14 Use the definition of Kw to determine neutral pH at
|LO 6.15 Identify a solution as containing a mixture of
strong acids and/or bases and calculate (and/or estimate) pH and
concentration of species in solution.
|LO 6.16 Identify a solution containing a weak acid or base
(or salt in which one ion is from a weak acid or base) calculate pH and
concentration of all species in solution and/or compare the relative
strength of two solutions given equilibrium data.
|LO 6.17 Given a mixture of weak and strong acids (including
polyprotic) determine which species will react strongly with each other
(K>1) and determine the concentrations of species at equilibrium.
|EK 6.C.2 pH is an important characteristic of
aqueous solution that can be controlled by buffers. Comparing the pH to
pKa allows the determination of the protonation-deprotonation state of
acids and bases
||LO 6.18 Design a buffer system for a target pH and buffer
|LO 6.19 Relate the pH and/or pKa to the dominant species in
a protonation-deprotonation reaction.
|LO 6.20 Identify a solution as a buffer. Explain the
buffering mechanism with the additon of either an acid or a base.
|EK 6.C.3 The solubility of a substance can be
understood in terms of chemical equilibrium
||LO 6.21 Use Ksp to rank the solubility of salts (or predict
solubitly of a salt)
|LO 6.22 Use solubility data to rank (or predict) Ksp.
|LO 6.23 Interpret solubility data of salts to determine the
effect of pH and common ions on solubility.
|LO 6.24 Analyze changes in enthalpy and entropy accompanying
the dissolution of a salt by using particle scale depictions.
|6.D. The equilibrium
constant is related to temperature and the difference in Gibbs Free Energy
between product and reactants
||EK 6.D.1 When ΔG
greater magnitude than RT then K is either very large or very small. If
they are nearly the same then K approaches 1 and the system approaches
||LO 6.25Express the equilibrium constant in terms of ΔG
and RT use this relationship to estimate the thermodynamic
favorability of the reaction as measured by K.