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1st Quarter Syllabus
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4th Quarter Syllabus

Framework

AP Chemistry has been recently revised by College Board. The following table reflects the organization of the curricular elements from large (big ideas) to more specific (learning outcomes). Our syllabi will be coded to the Enduring Understanding standards with the understanding that any one lesson will have multiple learning outcomes, and that the learning outcomes and pieces of essential knowledge will have multiple repetitions through the lesson and/or throughout the year.

 The table below is summarized from http://media.collegeboard.com/digitalServices/pdf/ap/2013advances/AAP-ChemistryCED_Effective_Fall_2013.pdf

Any errors arising from my re-phrasing, oversimplification are solely mine. The original document is better. Follow the link above in case of confusion or ambiguity - CPK.

 
Big Idea Enduring Understanding  Essential Knowledge Learning objective
1) All matter is made of atoms. Atoms retain identity during chemical reactions 1.A. All matter is made of atoms. There a limited number of types of atoms. These are elements. EK 1.A.1 Molecules are composed of specific combinations of atoms, with specific proportions. LO1.1 Students can justify the observation that the ratio of the masses for pure samples is constant.
EK 1.A.2 Chemical analysis provides a method for determining the relative number of atoms in a substance which can be used to identify a substance or its purity. LO 1.2 Student is able to select and apply mathematical routines to mass data to identify or infer the composition or purity of substances and mixtures
LO 1.3 Use math to justify claims about a substances composition and/or purity
EK 1.A.3 The mole is the fundamental unit for measuring quantities of atoms or molecules and allows chemistry to convert to mass LO 1.4 Able to connect the number of particles, moles, mass, and volume of a substance to one another qualitatively and quantitatively
1.B. Atoms of each element are unique. The particular arrangement arises from the interaction between the nucleus and electrons. EK 1.B.1 Atom is made of electrons and protons and neutrons. Coulomb's Law help predict interactions between electrons and protons. LO 1.5 Able to explain distribution of electrons from data.
LO 1.6 Analyze and predict electron energies.
EK 1.B.2 Electronic structure of atom is described by electron configurations which are quantized. Energies of shells are consistent with Coulomb's Law. LO 1.7 Describe the electronic structure of the atom. Reconcile data from any of a variety of sources to the interpretation using Coulomb's Law
LO 1.8 Explain the distribution of electrons using Coulomb's Law to analyze measured energies.
1.C. Elements when arranged by increasing atomic number display a profound periodicity. EK 1.C.1 Physical properties of elements are periodic because the electronic structure of atoms is periodic LO 1.9 Predict and/or justify periodic trends of elements based on position on the periodic table and/or shell model of atom.
LO 1.10 Justify arrangement of periodic table and predict reactivity
LO 1.11 Predict properties and behavior of binary compounds based on the similarity of their components to given chemicals.
EK 1.C.2 Currently accepted best model for atoms is the quantum-mechanical model. LO 1.12 Using data, students can determine if the classical shell model needs to be refined using Quantum Mechanics. (i.e. recognize weakness in classical shell model)
1.D. Atoms are so small as to be difficult to study individually. Models are constructed to explain collections of atoms. EK 1.D.1 Quantum mechanical model of atom is like any other scientific model. It may be subject to revision and for a given question may not yield more insight than simpler model. It is a theoretical construct. LO 1.13 Given information about a particular model students can determine if a model is consistent with the observations or requires revision.
EK 1.D.2 All atoms of a element are not identical in the strictest sense. Mass spectroscopy has proven existence of isotopes. LO 1.14 Given mass spectroscopic data students can identify element and the mass of a particular isotope.
EK 1.D.3 The interaction between light (of all frequencies) and matter provides great understanding of the structure of the matter. LO 1.15 Justify choice of particular type of spectroscopy based on vibrational frequencies and/or energies to be studied.
LO 1.16 Design and interpret spectroscopic investigation to yield concentration of light absorbing species in solution.
1.E. Atoms are conserved in in physical and chemical processes. EK 1.E.1 Physical and chemical processes may be depicted symbolically. Depiction must conserve matter. LO 1.17 Use symbolic depictions to demonstrate the conservation of matter.
EK 1.E.2 Conservation of matter requires that same number of same type of atoms appear before and after a chemical process. This allows for quantitative stoichiometry in all its various types from balancing equations to gravimetric analysis. LO 1.18 Apply conservation of matter to a variety of rearrangements of atoms (i.e. balance chemical reactions).
LO 1.19 Use gravimetric analysis in lab to determine the concentration of an analyte in solution.
LO 1.20 Design, perform and interpret and titration experiment that will yield concentration of an unknown.
2) Chemical and physical properties of substances reflect the arrangement of atoms, molecules and the forces between them.   LO 2.1 Predict properties of substance based on their chemical formulas based on particle views
LO 2.2 Explain the strengths of acids or based due to molecular formula and shape, including solution equilibrium
2.A. Matter can be described by its physical properties which arise from the spacing between particles (atoms or molecules) and the forces of attraction among them. EK 2.A.1 Properties of solids and liquids can be explained by difference in structures, both at molecular level and supramolecular scales. LO2.3 Know the difference in the particle models of solids, liquids, gases
EK 2.A.2 Gases can be modeled mathematically. Gasses do not have a definite volume or shape, because attractive forces between molecules are minimal and particles move independently (mostly). LO 2.4 Use Kinetic Molecular Theory and intermolecular forces to determine behavoir of ideal and non-ideal gases
LO 2.5 Relate macroscopic changes in gases to particle level using KMT
LO 2.6 Use mathematics to solve gas law problems, or to estimate them solving for a macroscopic quantity.
EK 2.A.3 Solutions are homogeneous mixtures whose properties are dependent on the concentration of solute and the intermolecular interactions between solute and solvent LO 2.7 Solutes can be separated by chromatography due to molecular interactions
LO 2.8 Draw and/or interpret diagrams that demonstrate molecular interactions accurately
LO 2.9 Draw and/or interpret diagrams illustrating molarity on the molecular scale.
LO 2.10 Design interpret separation experiment in terms of molecular interactions.
2.B. Forces of attraction between molecules are important in determining many of the macroscopic properties of a substance. EK 2.B.1 London forces are present in all molecules. London forces may be the strongest forces in large molecules. LO 2.11 Explain / predict trends in samples lacking intermolecular force other than London Forces.
EK 2.B.2 Dipole forces arise from the attraction between oppositely charged ends of a polar molecule. Hydrogen bonding is a particularly strong subset of this phenomenon between H and one of : N, O, F. LO 2.12 Identify deviations between real gas behavior and ideal gas behavior as a manifestation ofinter- molecular forces
LO 2.13 Describe structural features of polar molecules and the forces arising between molecules
LO 2.14 Qualitatively apply Coulomb's Law to explain the relative solubility of solutes in solvents.
EK 2.B.3 Intermolecular forces have a key role in determining the properties of of substances. LO 2.15 Explain solubility of ionic solids and molecules in solvents using both Inter Molecular force and Entropy
LO 2.16 Explain physical properties (phase, vapor pressure, viscosity etc.) of substances based on molecular interactions (IMF's)
2.C. The strong electrostatic forces holding atoms together in a unit are chemical bonds.

  

  LO 2.17 Predict the type of bonding present in a binary compound based on the positions of the components on the periodic table and/or their respective electronegativities.
EK 2.C.1 In covalent bonding electrons are shared. The distribution of the electrons between two chemicals is predicted by electronegativity. This in turn determines the polarity of the bond. LO 2.18 Rank and explain bond bond polarity on the basis of relative positions on the periodic table.
EK 2.C.2 Ionic bonding results from the net attraction between oppositely charged ions in a 3-D crystalline lattice. LO 2.19 Make diagrams that show how molecular scale interactions lead to macroscopically observable properties for ionic substances.
EK 2.C.3 Metallic bonding describes a 3-D array of positively charged metal cores in a shared "sea" of valence electrons LO 2.20 Show that properties of metals are consistent with delocalized electron bonding and the shell model of the atom
EK 2.C.4 The localized electron bonding model describes and predicts many properties of substances using Lewis dot diagrams and VSEPR  LO 2.21 Use Lewis dot diagrams and VSEPR to predict: geometry, hybridization and polarity.
2.D. The type of bonding can be deduced from the substance's properties in the solid state.   LO 2.22 Design and/or evaluate a plan for deducing the type of bonding present in a solid.
EK 2.D.1 Ionic solids have high melting points, are brittle and conduct electricity only when molten LO 2.23 Draw an ionic substance illustrating the characteristics of the structure and the interactions between the particles.
LO 2.24 Explain or evaluate a diagram of an ionic solid in terms of its structural characteristics and the interactions between particles.
EK 2.D. 2 Metallic solids are good conductors of heat, and electricity, have wide range of melting points, are opaque, shiny and malleable.
The are easily alloyed.
LO 2.25 Compare the properties of an alloy to its constituents to determine if an alloy has formed and the type of alloying. Explain the difference in properties at the particle level
LO 2.26 Use the electron sea model for metallic bonding to explain the properties of metals.
LO 2.27 Make atomic scale drawings of metals illustrating their essential properties and atomic interactions
LO 2.28 Explain or evaluate and drawing and its ability to explain properties and interactions in a metal or alloy.
EK 2.D.3 Covalent network solids have extremely high melting points, are hard, act as thermal insulators, but some conduct electricity LO 2.29 Draw a covalent network showing its structure and interactions.
LO 2.30 Explain or evaluate a drawing or diagram in terms of its ability illustrate a network solid's structure and particle interactions.
EK 2.D.4 Molecular solids with low molecular weights have low melting points, and do not conduct electricity in solid, liquid, or solution. LO 2.31 Draw a molecular covalent substance illustrating its structure and particle interactions.
LO 2.32 Evaluate a drawing's accuracy in portraying a molecular covalent substances structure and particle interactions.
3) Changes in matter involve the rearrangement and/or reorganization of atoms and/or the transfer of electrons  3.A. Chemical changes are represented by balanced chemical equations.   LO 3.1 Translate among macroscopic observations, chemical equations, and microscopic particle views of chemical changes.
EK 3.A.1: A chemical reaction may be represented as a molecular, ionic, or net ionic equation. LO 3.2 Translate a chemical change into a balanced chemical equation and classify the equation depending on the context
EK 3.A.2 Stoichiometry allows chemists to accurately predict what amount of reactants to use in a chemical reaction to produce a desired amount of product in the real-world. LO 3.3 Use stoichiometric calculations to predict outcome of chemical reactions. Compare actual results to calculations and explain any differences.
LO 3.4 Identify limiting reagents in chemical reactions which have not gone to completion.
3.B. Chemical reactions can be classified by what the reactants are, what the products are, and how they change from one to another. Several common types are: synthesis, decomposition, displacement, acid-base and redox reactions. EK 3.B.1 Synthesis reactions are those reactions in which 2 reactants combine to form 1 new product. Decomposition reactions are the reverse process in which 1 reactant will break into several smaller compounds. LO 3.5 Design a synthesis or decomposition reaction in which the Law of Conservation of Mass and the Law of Multiple Proportions can be confirmed.
LO 3.6 Use data from a synthesis or decomposition reaction to confirm multiple proportions and conservation of mass.
EK 3.B.2 In a neutralization reaction a proton is transferred from the acid to the base. LO 3.7 Identify compounds as Bronsted-Lowry acids or bases using proton exchange reactions to justify classification.
EK 3.B.3 In redox reactions there is a net transfer of electrons. The species gaining electrons is reduced, the species losing electrons is oxidized. LO 3.8 Identify Redox reactions and justify based on electron transfer.
LO 3.9 Design and/or interpret results from a redox titration.
3.C. Chemical and physical changes may be observed several different ways and typically involve an energy change in the system. EK 3.C.1 Production of light, temperature change, color change, formation of a precipitate, or gas are all indications that a chemical reaction may have taken place. LO 3.10 Classify a process as either a physical change, chemical change or ambiguous based on the changes of particle, their attractions and interactions.
EK 3.C.2 A reaction may be endothermic, or exothermic depending on whether the system liberates energy or stores energy. LO 3.11 Interpret macroscopic energy changes to symbols and/or energy change diagrams.
EK 3.C.3 Electrochemistry shows the interconversion of electrical potential and chemical potential energy in galvanic and electrolytic cells. LO 3.12 Make qualitative or quantitative prediction of electrolytic reactions using half-cell potentials or Faraday's laws.
LO 3.13 Analyze an electrolytic cell and accurately identify the products of the redox reaction.
4) Rates of chemical reactions are determined by the details of the molecular collisions. 4.A. Reaction rates that depend on temperature and other environmental factors are determined by measuring changes in concentration over time. EK 4.A.1 Rate of reaction is influenced by concentration of reactants, phase of the reactants and/or products, and enviromental factors such as temperature, and solvent. LO 4.1 Design or interpret results from an experiment to regarding the factors that can speed a chemical reaction up.
EK 4.A.2 The rate law shows how reaction rate depends on reaction concentration LO 4.2 Analyze concentration vs. time data to determine if reaction is 0, 1, 2 order.
EK 4.A.3 The magnitude and temperature dependence of the reaction rate is contained quantitatively in the rate constant.  LO 4.3 Relate reaction half-life to reaction order. Specifically that 1st order reaction half-lives are directly related to reaction constant.
4.B. Elementary reactions are mediated by collisions between molecules. Only collisions with sufficient energy and proper orientation make new products. EK 4.B.1 Reactions can be unimolecular or involve collisions between 2 or more molecules.  LO 4.4 Relate the molecular collision frequency and success rate to the reaction order and rate constant for elementary reactions.
EK 4.B.2 Not all collisions are successful. A collision leading to a reaction must posses sufficient energy and correct orientation to allow for the formation of new chemical bonds. LO 4.5 Explain the difference between collisions leading to reactions and those that fail in terms of energy and molecular orientation.
EK 4.B.3 A successful collision can be viewed as following a reaction path with an associated energy profile. LO 4.6 Use energy profiles of specific reactions to make qualitative predictions of relative temperature dependence of the reaction.
4.C. Many reactions proceed through a series of elementary reactions. EK 4.C.1 The reaction mechanism of a multi-step reaction consists of a series of elementary steps that will sum to the overall reaction. LO 4.7 Evaluate reaction alternative reaction mechanisms to determine which are consistent with reaction rate and data regarding reaction intermediates.
EK 4.C.2 In many reactions the rate is set by the slowest elementary reaction.
EK 4.C.3 Reaction intermediates (formed by one elementary step, but consumed by another) play an important role in multi-step reactions.
4.D. Reaction rates may be increased by the presence of a catalyst. EK 4.D.1 Catalysts function by lowering the activation energy of an elementary step and by providing a new and faster reaction mechanism. LO 4.8 Use a variety of representations (particle depictions, energy profiles, balanced chemical equations) to determine the presence or absence of a catalyst.
EK 4.D.2 Important types of catalysts include: acid-base; surface; and enzymatic. LO 4.9 Explain changes in reaction rates due to the use of acid-base catalysts, surface catalysts, or enzyme catalysts including selecting appropriate mechanisms with or without catalyst present.
5) The Laws of Thermodynamics explain the essential role of energy and explain and predict the direction of changes in matter.     LO 5.1 Use drawings and representations to illustrate the relationships between distance between atoms and energy. Specific topics may include bond order and polarity of bond.
5.A. Two systems with different temperatures in thermal contact will exchange energy. The quantity of energy exchanged is called heat. EK 5.A.1 Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of atoms and molecules. LO 5.2 Relate temperature to motion of particles using drawings and/or energy distribution plots.
EK 5.A.2 Kinetic energy transfer at the particulate level is heat. Spontaneous heat transfer always from hot (high energy) to cold (low energy). LO 5.3 Explain and/or make predictions about transfer of thermal energy between systems due to particle collisions.
5.B. Energy is neither created nor destroyed. It readily changes form. EK 5.B.1 Energy exchange between two systems occurs as heat exchange or work. LO 5.4 Use Law of Conservation of Energy to determine the magnitude, direction and type of energy flow between interacting systems.
EK 5.B.2 When two systems are in contact with each other (otherwise isolated) The total energy is fixed. The energy that leaves one system will flow to the other. Energy transfer can occur as heat or work. LO 5.5 Use Law of Conservation of Energy to predict magnitude and type of energy flow when two non-reacting systems are mixed.
EK 5.B.3 Chemical systems go through 3 main processes that their energy: heating/cooling; phase transitions; and chemical reactions. LO 5.6 Use calculations and/or estimates to predict energy changes due to heating/cooling a substance. Including energy relations during phase changes, the role of heat capacity, the effect of PdV work.
EK 5.B.4 Calorimetry is an experimental technique that is used to determine the heat exchanged in a chemical system. LO 5.7 Design or interpret the results of an experiment in which constant pressure calorimetry is used to determine change in enthalpy .
5.C. Breaking bonds requires energy input. Making bonds releases energy. EK 5.C.1 Potential energy is associated with a particular geometric arrangement of molecules and ions and the electrostatic interactions between them. LO 5.8 Make qualitative connections or quantitative calculations about reaction enthalpies due breaking and formation of chemical bonds.
EK 5.C.2 The net energy change during a reaction is the sum of energy required to break reactant bonds and the energy released making product bonds.
5.D. Electrostatic forces exist between molecules. Breaking these intermolecular forces requires energy. EK 5.D.1 Potential energy is associated with the interaction of molecules. As molecules draw closer to each other they experience an attractive force. LO 5.9 Make claims or predictions regarding the magnitude of forces within a collection of molecules based on the distribution of electrons and types of forces between molecules.
EK 5.D.2 At the particle scale, chemical processes can be distinguished from physical processes because intermolecular forces can be distinguished from chemical bonds. LO 5.10 Identify a process as a physical change based on whether intermolecular, or intramolecular forces are involved in the change. 
EK 5.D.3 Noncovalent and intermolecular play important roles in biological and polymer systems. LO 5.11 The student is able to identify non-covalent interactions within and between large molecules, and/or connect the shape and function of large molecules to these non-covalent forces.
5.E. Chemical processes are driven by a decrease in enthalpy or an increase in entropy or both. EK 5.E.1 Entropy is a measure of the dispersal of matter and energy. LO 5.12 Predict the sign and magnitude of entropy changes using a variety of methods/depictions.
EK 5.E.2 Some processes (chemical and physical) involve a decrease in enthalpy and an increase in entropy of the components of the system. These processes are always thermodynamically favored. LO 5.13 Predict whether a given chemical or physical process is favorable by determining the signs and magnitude of ΔH, ΔS, or ΔG as needed
EK 5.E.3 If chemical or physical change is not driven by both entropy and enthalpy, then Gibbs Free Energy can be used to determine thermodynamic favorability. LO 5.14 Determine thermodynamic favorability by calculating standard Gibbs Free Energy a variety of ways.
EK 5.E.4 External sources of energy may be used to drive change in cases where Gibbs Free Energy is positive. LO 5.15 Explain how the addition of outside energy can change thermodynamically unfavorable process to favorable.
LO 5.16 Use LeChatelier's principle to predict what changes will drive formation of more product in coupled systems.
LO 5.17 Make quantitative predictions on coupled systems with a shared intermediate using equilibrium constant calculations.
EK 5.E.5 A thermodynamically favored reaction may not occur due to kinetic constraints. LO 5.18 Explain why thermodynamically favored reaction may not produce significant amounts of product. Explain why and unfavorable reaction may produce significant products. Includes both consideration of initial products and kinetic factors.
6) Any bond that can be made can be broken 6.A. Chemical equilibrium is a dynamic reversible state in which rates of opposing processes are equal EK 6.A.1 In many classes of reaction it is important to consider both the forward and reverse reactions. LO 6.1 Explain a reversible reaction or chemical process in terms of the underlying chemical reactions and processes.
EK 6.A.2 The current state of a chemical system undergoing a reversible reaction can be characterized by the ratio of products to reactants or Q the reaction quotient LO 6.2 Calculate changes is Q or K given the changes to the chemical systems.
EK 6.A.3 When a system is at equilibrium, concentration, partial pressure, temperature do not change over time. The forward rate of reaction is exactly equal to the reverse rate of reaction and Q = K LO 6.3 Use LeChatelier's principle to deduce how a change will effect the kinetics of the forward and reverse processes of a system in equilibrium
LO 6.4 Use initial conditions and K to calculate Q and determine if a chemical system is at equilibrium, will continue to right, or will reverse.
LO 6.5 Calculate K from tables, lists, or charts of a system at equilibrium
LO 6.6 Calculate K from initial concentrations or partial pressures and a balanced chemical equation.
EK 6.A.4 The magnitude of K determines whether reactant or product concentrations predominate at equilibrium LO 6.7 Given a chemical reaction with a large K or a small K determine which species will have high and low concentrations at equilibrium
6.B. Systems at equilibrium are sensitive to external perturbation, with the response leading to a change in the composition of the  system EK 6.B.1 Systems at equilibrium respond to stresses to reduce the stress LO 6.8 Use LeChatelier's principle to determine the shift in equilibrium given various stresses on a system at equilibrium.
LO 6.9 Use LeChatelier's principle to design a set of conditions that will optimize a desired outcome.
EK 6.B.2 If a system at equilibrium is disturbed, new conditions cause Q to differ from K. The system responds by bringing Q back into agreement with K LO 6.10 Use LeChatelier's principle to explain effects of stress on Q and K.
6.C. Chemical equilibrium plays a major role in acid-base chemistry and solubility EK 6.C.1 Chemical equilibrium reasoning can be used to descibe proton transfer reactions between acids, bases, and their salts. LO 6.11 Use a representation that depicts which particles are present at equilibrium when a base and acid interact.
LO 6.12 Explain the differences between strong and weak acids. Specifically address pH, percent ionization, concentration needed to achieve a given pH, and amount needed to achieve equivalence point.
LO 6.13 Interpret titration data for monoprotic or polyprotic acids (either strong or weak acids, either strong or weak bases) to determine concentration of the titrant and pKa or pKb as appropriate.
LO 6.14 Use the definition of Kw to determine neutral pH at non-standard conditions
LO 6.15 Identify a solution as containing a mixture of strong acids and/or bases and calculate (and/or estimate) pH and concentration of species in solution.
LO 6.16 Identify a solution containing a weak acid or base (or salt in which one ion is from a weak acid or base) calculate pH and concentration of all species in solution and/or compare the relative strength of two solutions given equilibrium data.
LO 6.17 Given a mixture of weak and strong acids (including polyprotic) determine which species will react strongly with each other (K>1) and determine the concentrations of species at equilibrium.
EK 6.C.2 pH is an important characteristic of aqueous solution that can be controlled by buffers. Comparing the pH to pKa allows the determination of the protonation-deprotonation state of acids and bases LO 6.18 Design a buffer system for a target pH and buffer capacity.
LO 6.19 Relate the pH and/or pKa to the dominant species in a protonation-deprotonation reaction.
LO 6.20 Identify a solution as a buffer. Explain the buffering mechanism with the additon of either an acid or a base.
EK 6.C.3 The solubility of a substance can be understood in terms of chemical equilibrium LO 6.21 Use Ksp to rank the solubility of salts (or predict solubitly of a salt)
LO 6.22 Use solubility data to rank (or predict) Ksp.
LO 6.23 Interpret solubility data of salts to determine the effect of pH and common ions on solubility.
LO 6.24 Analyze changes in enthalpy and entropy accompanying the dissolution of a salt by using particle scale depictions.
6.D. The equilibrium constant is related to temperature and the difference in Gibbs Free Energy between product and reactants EK 6.D.1 When ΔG is much greater magnitude than RT then K is either very large or very small. If they are nearly the same then K approaches 1 and the system approaches equilibrium LO 6.25Express the equilibrium constant in terms of ΔG and RT use this relationship to estimate the thermodynamic favorability of the reaction as measured by K.