Course Description

Big Idea Enduring Understanding Learning objective Essential Knowledge
SPQ Scale, proportion, quantity: Explanations and predictions in Chemistry require working across scales ranging from sub-atomic to macroscopic. 7-9% of Exam weighting  SPQ 1 The mole allows different units to be compared. SPQ 1.A Calculate quantities of a substance, or number of particles using dimensional analysis and the mole. SPQ1.A.1 Atoms and molecules cannot be counted directly, therefore they must be converted to mass using the mole
  SPQ1.A.2  Avogadro's number 6.022E23 particles/mole provides the connection between mass and number of particles.
SPQ1.A.3 The mass of 1 mole of substance is the sum of the average atomic masses of its constituents. Molar Mass
SPQ 1.B Explain the quantitative relationship between the mass spectrum of an element and the masses of the element's isotopes. SPQ 1.B.1 The mass spectrum can be used to determine the identity of the isotopes, and relative abundances of each isotope in a sample.
SPQ 1.B.2 The average atomic mass of an element can be estimated from the weighted average of the isotopic masses given the mass of each isotope and its abundance. Avg. Atomic Mass
SPQ2 Chemical formulas identify substances by their unique combination of atoms. SPQ 2.A Explain the quantitative relationship between the elemental composition by mass and the empirical formula. SPQ2.A.1 Some pure substances are molecular, others are composed of fixed proportions of ions.
SPQ2.A.2 The ratio of masses of constituents in a pure sample is always the same. Law of definite proportions.
SPQ2.A.3  The chemical formula with the lowest whole number ratio of the masses of constituent elements is the empirical formula.
SPQ 2.B Explain the quantitative relationship between the elemental composition by mass and the composition of substances in a mixture. SPQ 2.B.1 Pure substances contain molecules or formula units of a certain type. Mixtures contain two or more molecules or formula units and the relative proportions can vary
SPQ 2.B.2 Elemental analysis can be used to determine the relative numbers of atoms in a substance and to determine its purity.
SPQ-3 Interactions between intermolecular forces influence the solubility and separation of mixtures SPQ 3.A Calculate the number of solute particles, volume, or molarity of solutions SPQ 3.A.1 Solutions (homogeneous mixtures) can be solids, liquids, or gases. Homogeneous mixtures have uniform properties, whereas heterogeneous mixture properties vary depending on exact location within the mixture.
SPQ 3.A.2 Molarity is most common method of expressing solution concentration.
M= n solute/L solution
SPQ 3.B Use particulate models to: represent interactions between components of a mixture; represent concentrations of components of a mixture. SPQ 3.B.1 Particulate diagrams illustrate the structure and properties of solutions and are able to show both interactions and concentrations of the components.
SAP Properties of substances emerge from their atomic structure. Observation of properties allows us to infer presence of structures. Exam weighting 7-9%


SAP-1 Atoms and molecules can be identified by their electron distribution and energy. SAP 1.A Represent the electron configuration of an element using the Aufbau Principle SAP 1.A.1 The atom is composed of negatively charged electrons and a positive nucleus. The nucleus is made up of protons and neutrons.
    SAP 1.A.2Coulomb's Law is used to calculate the force between two charged objects:
 F= KQ1Q2/r2
    SAP 1.A.3 In atoms and ions electrons occupy energy levels and sub-levels as governed by Quantum mechanics, and the Aufbau principle. This helps determine relationships visible on the periodic table
  SAP 1.B Relate a given spectra to electron configuration of the species; the interactions between the electrons and the nucleus. SAP 1.B.1 The position of each PES energy peak is related to the amount of energy required to remove those electrons. The height of the peak is proportion to the number of electrons in that sub-shell or energy sub-level.
SAP-2 Periodic table shows patterns in electronic structure and trends in atomic properties. SAP 2.A Explain the relationship between electronic structure and periodicity. SAP 2.A.1 Recurring properties of elements is explained by electron configuration of elements and ions.
SAP 2.A.2 Explain trends in Ionization Energy, Atomic and ionic radii, Electron affinity, and Electronegativity in terms of Coulomb's Law, shielding/effective nuclear charge, and the shell model.
SAP 2.A.3 Period trends are useful to predict/estimate values of properties.
SAP 2.B Explain the relationship between trends in reactivity of elements and periodicity SAP 2.B.1 Formation of chemical bonds is determined by the interaction between valence electrons and nuclei of elements.
SAP 2.B.2 Elements in the same column of the periodic table tend to form analogous compounds
SAP 2.B.3 Typical charges of atoms in ionic compounds is determined by the number of valence electrons, and location on the periodic table.
SAP-3 Atoms or ions bond due to interactions between them forming molecules SAP 3.A Explain the relationship between the type of bonding and the properties of the elements participating in the bond. SAP 3.A.1 Electronegativity values increase up, and to the right on the periodic table (excepting the last column). This is controlled by the shell model and Coulomb's Law
SAP 3.A.2 Valence electrons shared between atoms of similar electronegativity will form a non-polar covalent bond.
SAP 3.A.3 Unequal electronegativities give rise to polar covalent bonds. The more electronegative species develops a partial negative charge. Greater differences in electronegativity creates large bond dipoles. All polar bonds have some ionic character. Differences between ionic and covalent bonding represent a continuum.
SAP 3.A.4 Difference in electronegativities is not the only factor in determining bond type. Examination of the properties of a compound is the best way to characterize the type of bonding.
SAP 3.A.5 Metallic solids exhibit delocalized electrons which explains metallic properties.
SAP 3.B Represent the relationship between potential energy and distance between atoms, based on the factors that influence the interaction strength. SAP 3.B.1 Interpret potential energy-distance graphs for bond length and bond energy.
SAP 3.B.2 Understand how atomic core size, bond order can effect bond length
SAP 3.B.3  Use Coulomb's Law to understand the interactions between cations and anions. Higher charges lead to strong attractions. Smaller radii lead to stronger attractions.
SAP 3.C Represent an ionic solid with a particulate model consistent with Coulomb's Law and properties of the constituent ions. SAP 3.C.1 Cations and anions in an ionic solid are in a regular 3-d lattice that maximizes attractive forces while minimizing repulsive forces.
SAP 3.D Represent a metallic solid and/or alloy using a model to show the characteristics of the structure and interactions present in the substance. SAP 3.D.1 Metallic bonding can be represented using the "electron-sea" model of valence electrons around closely packed cations.
SAP 3.D.2 Interstitial alloys form between atoms of significantly different radii (carbon in iron making steel). 
SAP 3.D.2 Substitutional alloys form between metals of similar radii (copper and zinc making brass).
SAP-4 The structure of molecular compounds can generally be understood by construction Lewis dot diagrams and applying VSEPR theory.  SAP 4.A Represent a molecule with a Lewis (Dot) diagram. SAP 4.A.1 Lewis diagrams can be constructed according to an established set of principles (octet rule, etc).
SAP 4.B Represent a molecule with a Lewis diagram that accounts for resonance between equivalent structures or that uses formal charge to choose between non-equivalent structures SAP 4.B.1 If more than one equivalent Lewis structure exists, resonance must be depicted
SAP 4.B.2 The octet rule and formal charge can be used for determining which of valid Lewis structure provides the best model
SAP 4.B.3 Lewis structure model has limits. Especially when odd numbers of valence electrons are present.
SAP 4.C Using Lewis diagrams, VSEPR theory, bond order, bond polarity explain: structural properties of molecules; electron properties of molecules. SAP 4.C.1 VSEPR uses Coulombic repulsion to predict that bonds will locate as far as possible from other bonds on that atom.
  SAP 4.C.2 Using Lewis diagrams and VSEPR theory predict: Molecular geometry, Bond Angles, Relative Bond energies (from bond order), bond length (including effect of atomic radii), dipole moment, hybridization of valence orbitals.
SAP 4.C.3 Use bond angles to discern valence shell hybridization:  sp2, sp3, sp3d
SAP-5 Intermolecular forces can explain the physical properties of a material. 18-22% of test weighting SAP 5.A Explain the relationship between the molecular structures and relative strength of intermolecular forces when the molecules are the same or when they are different. SAP 5.A.1 London dispersion forces result from fluctuating dipoles. They may be the strongest force for large molecules. LDF increase with increasing contact area, increasing polarizability of the molecule. Polarizability increases with increasing numbers of electrons and size of the electron cloud. It is enhanced by pi bonding.

LDF not synonymous with Van der Waals forces.

SAP 5.A.2 Dipole moment leads to additional interactions. Dipole-induced dipole present between polar and non-polar molecules. Always attractive. Increase with increasing magnitude of the original dipole and with polarizability of the non-polar molecule.

Dipole-dipole interactions are present between polar molecules dependent on magnitude and orientation of the dipoles. Typically greater in magnitude than those with non-polar molecules. Act in addition to LDF

Ion-dipole forces of attraction are present between ions and polar molecules. Tend to be stronger than dipole-dipole forces

SAP 5.A.3 Relative strength and orientation dependence of dipole-dipole and ion-dipole forces can be understood qualitatively by considering the sign of the partial charges and their orientation relative to other dipoles.
SAP 5.A.4 Hydrogen bonding is a strong type of intermolecular force between H's which are polar covalently bonded to N, O, or F, and are simultaneously attracted to the negative end of a similar dipole in an adjacent molecule, or different part of the same molecule.
SAP 5.A.5 In large biomolecules, noncovalent interactions may occur between different molecules, or different regions in the same molecule.
SAP 5.B Explain the relationship between macroscopic properties of a substance and the particulate-level structure and interactions of the substance. SAP 5.B.1 Many properties of liquids and solids are directly controlled by the inter-molecular forces present. These include vapor pressure, boiling point and to a lesser extent melting point.
SAP 5.B.2 Be able to construct and interpret particle level diagrams to explain macroscopic properties.
SAP 5.B.3 Due to strong IMF's, ionic solids have low vapor pressures, high melting points, high boiling points and are brittle. They conduct electricity when molten or dissolved (when ions are mobile).
SAP 5.B.4 Covalent network solids are 3-d lattices of non-metals that have strong covalent bonds. They are hard, brittle, with high melting and boiling points.
SAP 5.B.5 Molecular solids have relatively weak IMFs and so have high vapor pressure, low boiling and  melting points. They do not conduct electricity because bonding electrons are tightly held. Molecules may be very large and include polymers.
SAP 5.B.6 Metallic solids are good conductors of heat and electricity due to the delocalized "electron sea". They are malleable, ductile and opaque and fairly soft. Alloying can change the hardness, malleability.
SAP 5.B.7 In large biomolecules or polymers noncovalent interactions may occur between different regions. Behavior is dependent on the shape of the molecule in turn determined by these noncovalent interactions.
SAP-6 Matter exists in 3 states: solid, liquid, and gas;their differences are due spacing and motion of the  molecules. SAP 6.A Represent the differences between solid, liquid, and gas phases using a particulate level model. SAP 6.A.1 Solids can be crystalline with a regular 3-d lattice or may be amorphous. In both cases motion of individual particles is limited. They vibrate only and do not translate relative to each other.
    SAP 6.A.2 Particles of liquid are in close contact with each other. The vibrate, rotate, and translate relative to each other and are held close by IMFs. IMF's can be quite strong for some substances, weak for others.
    SAP 6.A.3 Solid and liquid phases typically have similar molar volumes because the particles are in close contact with each other.
    SAP 6.A.4 Gas particles are in constant motion and their collisions and average distance between particles are dependent on Temperature, Pressure, and Volume. IMF's are limited due to the distance between particles. Gas has neither definite volume nor shape.
SAP-7 Gas properties are explained as a function of Pressure, Volume, Temperature and the number of moles of gas present. On a molecular level, motion of gas particles is important. SAP 7.A Use the ideal gas law to explain observations of a gas mixture of gases. SAP 7.A.1 The macroscopic properties of ideal gases are related: PV=nRT (ideal gas law)
SAP 7.A.2 In a mixture of ideal gases. Pa = Ptotal X Xa where Xa = moles a /total moles. P total = P1 + P2 + P3...
SAP 7.A.3 Graphing the relationship between P,V,T and n decribes how ideal gas behavior is.
SAP 7.B Explain the relationship between the motion of particles and the macroscopic properties of gases with: Kinetic Molecular Theory, Particulate Diagrams, Graphical Representation. SAP 7.B.1 Kinetic Molecular Theory relates the macroscopic properties of gases to motion of the gases particles. Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution describes the kinetic energies of particles at a given temperature.
SAP 7.B.2 Particles of matter are in constant random motion. Average kinetic energy is related to average velocity KE = 1/2 mv2
SAP 7.B.3 Temperature in Kelvin is directly proportional to kinetic energy
SAP 7.B.4 Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution shows energies or velocities of particles at a given temperature.
SAP 7.C Explain the relationship among non-ideal behaviors of gases, interparticle forces and/or volumes. SAP 7.C.1 Real gases deviate from ideal behavior due to IMFs especially at low temperatures and high pressure. At high enough pressure atomic or molecular volumes contribute significantly to non-ideality.
  SAP-8 Spectroscopy can determine the structure and concentration in a mixture of chemical species. SAP 8.A Explain the relationship between the region if EM spectra and types of molecular or electronic transition associated with that region. SAP 8. A .1 Differences in absorbtion or emissions spectra are related to different types of molecular motion or electronic transition:

a. Microwave associated with changes in rotation

b. Infrared associated with changes in vibration

c. Ultraviolet/visible associated with electron energy level changes.

    SAP 8.B Explain the properties of an absorbed or emitted photon from a particular electronic transition in an atom or molecule. SAP 8.B.1 When a photon is emitted or absorbed by an atom or molecule, the energy of the species increases or decreases by the amount of energy (quanta) of the photon.
    SAP 8.C The light absorbed by a solution of molecules or ions is proportional to concentration, path and molar absorptivity. SAP 8.C.1 Beer-Lambert Law A=Ebc.
      SAP 8.C.2 Most experiments are designed to hold path length and molar absorbtivity constant. Absorbtivity is directly proportional to concentration.